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InstaLinks :  help you think beyond the issue but relevant to the issue from UPSC prelims and Mains exam point of view. These linkages provided in this ‘hint’ format help you frame possible questions in your mind that might arise(or an examiner might imagine) from each current event. InstaLinks also connect every issue to their static or theoretical background. This helps you study a topic holistically and add new dimensions to every current event to help you think analytically
Table of Contents:
GS Paper 1:
1. Colonialism and Decolonization
2. Cyclones getting fiercer
GS Paper 3:
1. The FM’s call for industrial investment
2. GM Mustard
GS Paper 4:
1. The great significance of being APJ Abdul Kalam
Content for Mains Enrichment
1. Improving access to entertainment content
Facts for Prelims:
1. Pasmanda Muslims
2. ASEAN special meeting on Myanmar
3. Bombay Dyeing, Wadias barred from the securities market for 2 yrs
4. Irregular transactions
5. Jal Jeevan Mission
6. Sandalwood cultivation
7. Bats evicted from Manipur cave for tourism
8. Humpback Highway
9. Satellite phones
10. NavIC
11. Mapping
Syllabus: History of the world, Colonization, Decolonization
Source: The Hindu
Direction: This article throws light on Colonialism, Decolonization and its remains on the previous colonies. It may be useful for Essays and modern history-related questions in CSE.
Context: In an Editorial, the writer discussed the ghost of colonial legacy.
To colonize is to settle in, and take control of, land outside your own borders. E.g. the British colonized India for over 200 years. Colonization was motivated by economics. European powers sought to expand their markets and acquire raw materials overseas.
Decolonization is a process by which colonies become independent of the colonizing country. Decolonization occurred in response to independence movements in colonized territories when European powers determined that the benefits of maintaining colonies were not worth the costs.
Difference between Colonialism and Imperialism:
What is Decolonization?
Colonial Legacy in India:
Public Policy:
Colonised societies suffered similar consequences, such as the drainage of wealth and the emergence of a state apparatus that the common people found difficult to identify with. Their fear of the state and the state’s distrust of the citizen ought to be the prime agenda for anyone pursuing de-colonisation.
Insta links:
Mains Link:
Q. Write a short note on the decolonization process in Africa. (10M)
Source: DTE
Syllabus: Geography
Directions: This Article has been taken from Down to Earth and majorly talks about the impact of climate change on cyclone frequency. Go through it once, you can use it for value addition.
Context: Recently cyclonic storm Sitrang made an early landfall in Bangladesh causing a surprise among meteorologists.
Cyclone Sitrang:
Cyclone Sitrang rapidly doubling its pace and making an early landfall in Bangladesh has been termed as ‘unusual’ by meteorologists.
Changing characters of cyclones in India and how they are damaging more now


Insta Links
Prelims link.
Mains Links:
Q. Tropical cyclones are largely confined to the South China Sea, Bay of Bengal and Gulf of Mexico. Why? (UPSC CSE MAINS 2014)
Q. What is a tropical cyclone and how are they classified in the Atlantic-Northeastern Pacific Ocean region? Explain the mechanism ofthe formation of a tropical cyclone.
Q. Consider the following statements: (UPSC CSE 2020)
1.       Jet streams occur in the Northern Hemisphere only.
2.       Only some cyclones develop an eye.
3.       The temperature inside the eye of a cyclone is nearly 10 C lesser than that of the surroundings.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct:
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 2 only
(d) 1 and 3 only
Answer: C
Syllabus: Indian Economy and issues
Context: Recently, the finance minister has asked industries to invest more in the manufacturing sector. The minister’s statement comes at a time when private investments have remained elusive in recent years or are limited to a few sectors.
What is the current scenario?
Thus there is greater optimism for economic rebounding and thus FM has called on industries to invest more to reap the benefits of a growing economy.

What is Consumer Confidence Index?
The Consumer Confidence Index (CCI) is a survey that indicates how optimistic or pessimistic consumers are regarding their expected financial situation. If the consumers are optimistic, spending will be more, whereas if they are not so confident, then their poor consumption pattern may lead to recession.
Syllabus: GS3: Science & Technology: Awareness in the fields of Biotechnology
Source: The Hindu; Indian Express; Down to Earth
Direction: This is in continuation of the previously given FFP on GM Mustard.
Context:  The Genetic Engineering Appraisal Committee (GEAC) under the Union Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change recommended the “environmental release” of the transgenic hybrid mustard DMH-11 for seed production and conduct of field demonstration studies with respect to its effects, if any, on honey bees and other pollinating insects.
Dhara Mustard Hybrid (DMH-11):
Dhara Mustard Hybrid- 11( DMH- 11), was developed by Deepak Pental of Delhi University, through transgenic technology, in 2002. DMH – 11 was created through transgenic technology, primarily involving the Bar, Barnase and Barstar gene systems.
Cleared by GEAC, what next?

Fig. Arguments for & against GM Crops
Insta Links:
Prelims Link:
Mains question:
Q. It is argued that genetically modified crops can solve the myriad challenges associated with Indian agriculture. Discuss in light of GEAC’s approval of the environmental release of GM Mustard. (250 words)
Syllabus: Ethical Value from lives of great personalities
Source: Hindustan Times
Various instances from the life of APJ Abdul Kalam – showing the qualities of a good leader.
Besides his relentless work to see India as a developed nation and his vision for India 2020, it is the sheer sense of possibility that he brought to millions of Indians. He made us confident that if we have the will, we could make it happen.
Insta Links:
Values for Civil Servants from the life of APJ Abdul Kalam
Mains Link:
Q. Highlight some of the Ethical values from the life of APJ Abdul Kalam, which can be of use in the personal and professional life of a public servant. 10M
Source: The Hindu
Directions: You can use it as a measure to improve access for disabled people
 Tools that help make entertainment content disabled-friendly:
The Rights of Persons with Disabilities (RPwD) Act: Government to take measures to ensure that “persons with disabilities” have access to electronic media by providing audio description, sign language interpretation, subtitling and close captioning.
Work by Saksham(NGO):
What more needs to be done?
Sensitization that making disabled-friendly content is the right thing to do morally, legally and commercially. Citizens with disabilities must demand accountability from the government, filmmakers, streaming platforms and others in the entertainment ecosystem. And I&B Ministry must promptly notify the Accessibility Standards for Television Programmes for Hearing Impaired.

Source: The Hindu
 Context: The Prime Minister appealed to make an outreach to deprived minority groups such as Pasmanda Muslims, especially in Uttar Pradesh.
The Indian Muslim community can be divided along three lines: Ashrafs (elite class)(15%-20%), Ajlaf (backward class), and Arzal (most backward class)
Pasmanda Muslims:
Constitutional Provisions for Minority:
Article 29:
●        It provides that any section of the citizens residing in any part of India having a distinct language, script or culture of its own, shall have the right to conserve the same.
●        It grants protection to both religious minorities as well as linguistic minorities.
●        However, the SC held that the scope of this article is not necessarily restricted to minorities only, as the use of the word ‘ any section of citizens’ in the Article includes minorities as well as the majority.
Article 30:
●        All minorities shall have the right to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice.
●        The protection under Article 30 is confined only to minorities (religious or linguistic) and does not extend to any section of citizens (as under Article 29).
Article 350-B:
·         The 7th Constitutional (Amendment) Act 1956 inserted this article which provides for a Special Officer for Linguistic Minorities appointed by the President of India.
·         It would be the duty of the Special Officer to investigate all matters relating to the safeguards provided for linguistic minorities under the Constitution.
Directions: Important for Prelims and mains, mapping of ASEAN countries is important for Prelims
Source: Indian Express
Context: Foreign ministers from the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries are meeting to discuss an intensifying crisis in Myanmar.
Why is the meeting happening?
What is the consensus?
How has the Junta responded?
What approaches might ASEAN take?
 Junta: A junta regime is composed of military officers who seize ruling power in a country.
Source: The Hindu, Economic Times
Context:  Recently SEBI has barred textile producer Bombay Dyeing and its promoters from accessing the security market for two years for misrepresentation of the financial statements of the company.
Securities are financial instruments issued to raise funds. The primary function of the securities markets is to enable to flow of capital from those that have it to those that need it. E.g. stocks, Bonds, Shares etc.
Securities and Exchange Board of India:
Source: Business Standard
Context:  So far 786 applications have been filed to recover over Rs 2.2 trillion allegedly lost through irregular transactions by firms undergoing the corporate insolvency resolution process.
Irregular transaction refers to a transaction which has been initiated or concluded by the Agent outside the permitted or agreed on procedure and policy.
Irregular transactions identified by IBC Code, 2016:
IBC Code 2016
Source: PIB, Hindustan times
Context: The Gujarat government has achieved 100% tap water connections in rural areas under the Jal Jeevan Mission, the state water resources and water supply minister said.
Other States/UTs which have achieved 100 per cent:
Jal Jeevan Mission:

Salient features:

Source: The Hindu
Context:  Sandalwood spike diseases which hitherto were confined mainly to forest areas, started spreading to commercial areas.
Sandalwood spike diseases:
About Sandalwood:
Indian Sandalwood is a dry deciduous forest species native to China, India, Indonesia, Australia, and the Philippines. Because it is strong and durable, S. album is mostly harvested for its timber. On IUCN Red List Status, it is Vulnerable. In India, it is also called “Chandan” and “Srigandha”. Sandalwood has a special place in Indian tradition where it is used from cradle to cremation.
In India, it is mostly grown in Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Bihar, Gujarat, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, and Tamil Nadu.

Source: The Hindu
As per a zoological study that recorded new fauna in Manipur, A colony of bats was evicted from a Manipur cave system with a Palaeolithic past to make it tourist-friendly.
Horseshoe bat
Horseshoe bats, (genus Rhinolophus), are any of more than 100 species of large-eared insect-eating bats.
IUCN Status: Over a third of bat species are considered threatened or data deficient.
Importance of Bats: Bats play an essential role in pest control, and pollinating plants. In the tropics and subtropics, bats act as very efficient seed dispersers and are responsible for much of the regeneration of forests following deforestation.
Khangkhui cave: The Khangkhui, locally called Khangkhui Mangsor, is a natural limestone cave about 15 km from Ukhrul, the headquarters of Ukhrul district of Manipur. The cave was home to Stone Age communities.

Each year, an estimated 40,000 humpback whales leave the freezing waters of Antarctica on the world’s longest mammal migration.
They make their way up Australia’s east and west coasts to the tropics before returning, calves in tow, a couple of months later. However, they get caught up in the fishing gear nets and get injured or die.
Humpback whales (currently least concern at IUCN) were hunted to near extinction last century. Since bans on whaling, however, the local population has bounced back into the tens of thousands, experts say.
Named after the distinctive hump in front of their small dorsal fin, humpback whales often feed in large groups and are famous for their singing ability.

Source: Indian Express
Context: Recently, A senior executive of Saudi Arabian oil company Saudi Aramco with an unauthorised satellite phone was arrested in Uttarakhand under sections of the Indian Telegraph Act and the Indian Wireless Telegraphy Act.
What’s wrong with carrying a satellite phone?
What do these rules say?
What is a satellite phone?
A satellite phone is a telephone that can connect to orbiting satellites.

Source: The Hindu
The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) is working on a series of improvements to the ‘NavIC’ so that more people are motivated to install and use it.
What is NavIC?
NavIC (Navigation with Indian Constellation), or the Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS), is a constellation of seven satellites that can be used to track location.
It is akin to the American GPS, the European Galileo and the Russian GLONASS Navigation systems.


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