[Mission 2023] INSIGHTS DAILY CURRENT AFFAIRS + PIB SUMMARY 01 November 2022 – INSIGHTSIAS – Insights IAS

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InstaLinks :  help you think beyond the issue but relevant to the issue from UPSC prelims and Mains exam point of view. These linkages provided in this ‘hint’ format help you frame possible questions in your mind that might arise(or an examiner might imagine) from each current event. InstaLinks also connect every issue to their static or theoretical background. This helps you study a topic holistically and add new dimensions to every current event to help you think analytically
 
Table of Contents:
GS Paper 1:
1. Where Does India Stand On Anti-Superstition And Black Magic Legislations?
 
GS Paper 2:
1. Status of Sri Lankan Tamil Refugees
 
GS Paper 3:
1. How suspension bridges work and the tragedy in Morbi
2. The wind sector in India needs an overhaul
3. CDS must proceed with caution
 
Facts for Prelims:
1. First Amendment Act, 1951
2. Right to vote
3. Two-finger’ test
4. MGNREGS
5. Capitation fees
6. PLI Scheme for Telecom and Networking Products
7. HARIT Aaykar initiative
8. Warehousing and e-NWR
9. Aceclofenac
10. Mengtian module
11. Life on Mars
12. Human DNA is 8 % Virus
13. World Cities Day
14. Terai Elephant Reserve 
15. Mapping
 
Syllabus: Salient features of Indian Society; Women empowerment
 
Source: The Hindu, Outlook India
Context:  In the aftermath of the alleged human sacrifice of two women in Kerala, the ruling CPI (M) in the state has stressed the need for new legislation to curb such superstitious practices.
 
Prevalence of superstitious killings in India:
 
Legal provisions against superstitions in India:
 
State-specific laws:
 
Judicial precedence:
 
Need for a country-wide Anti-superstition/ Black Magic Act:
 
Reasons for such practices:
 
Conclusion:
Bringing legislation to deal with this social issue shall only mean half the battle won, wherein meaningful reform will need to increase awareness among the masses through information campaigns, and by roping in community/religious leaders to debunk the myths surrounding such practices. Bringin in the community leaders to make people aware.
 
Insta Links
Prelims link
 
Mains Links:
Q.Critically analyse the causes and consequences of the continuing practice of superstitions in India. (10M)
Syllabus: Parliament-Structure, functioning and conduct of business, Indian Constitution-features, amendments, significant provisions and basic structure etc
Source: The Hindu
Context: The Supreme Court will hear petitions challenging the Citizenship (Amendment) Act (CAA). The hearing could have an impact on the unresolved status of Indian-origin Tamils who repatriated from Sri Lanka
Background of the Issue:
For over four decades, nearly 30,000 Indian-origin Tamils have been classified as stateless persons, based on technicalities. The recent Citizenship act will need to be amended to include them under it.

 
After the Civil-War steps by India for Indian-Origin Tamils:
 
Judicial stand:
 
Global practices:
 
Way forward:
Given their genealogical link to India, the Government of India needs to consider extending citizenship benefits to them in accordance with Indian bilateral obligations and international humanitarian principles and international conventions.
Constitutional provisions:
●        Article 5: All those domiciled and born in India were given citizenship.
●        Article 6: It provided the rights of citizenship of certain persons who have migrated to India from Pakistan.
●        Article 7: Provided Rights of citizenship of certain migrants to Pakistan.
●        Article 8: Provided Rights of citizenship of certain persons of Indian origin residing outside India.
●        Article 9: Provided that if any person voluntarily acquired the citizenship of a foreign State will no longer be a citizen of India.
●        Article10: Every person who is or is deemed to be a citizen of India under any of the foregoing provisions of this Part shall, subject to the provisions of any law that may be made by Parliament, continue to be such citizen.
●        Article 11: It empowers Parliament to make any provision with respect to the acquisition and termination of citizenship and all matters relating to it.
 
Insta Links:
CAA 2019
Citizenship (Amendment) Act Rules
 
Mains Links:
Q. Though the Human Rights Commissions have contributed immensely to the protection of human rights in India, yet they have failed to assert themselves against the mighty and powerful. Analyzing their structural and practical limitations, suggest remedial measures.(UPSC 2021)
 
Prelims links:
Q. With reference to citizenship, consider the following statements:
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
a. 1 only
b. 2 only
c. Both 1 and 2
d. Neither 1 nor 2
Ans: (a)
Justification:
Refer to the article above
Syllabus: DM+ Governance
 
Sources: Indian Express
 Context: The century-old cable suspension bridge in Gujarat’s Morbi, collapsed into the river, sending hundreds plunging into the water. The bridge was a tourist attraction and had long been hailed as a magnificent engineering marvel.
  
Technical reasons for the collapse of the 19th Century pedestrian bridge are:
  
Probable cause of such disasters: Coming out of the long restrictions on travel necessitated by the COVID-19 pandemic, people all over the world appear to be binging on travel and outings.
  
How to mitigate such kinds of disasters:
While tourism and travel are powerful engines of the economy, there must be more attention paid to ensure that they are safe and sustainable.
  
What is a suspension bridge?
As the name implies, suspension bridges suspend the roadway by cables, ropes or chains from two tall towers. In simple words, it is a type of bridge in which the deck is hung below suspension cables on vertical suspenders.
 
How does it work?
Suspension bridges depend on the balance of the forces of compression and tension.
 
Way forward:
A mechanism should be put in place to ensure that any bridge opened for public transport should conform to prescribed standards and specifications and is safe in all respects to be carrying passenger traffic.
 
History of the ‘Jhulto Pul’ Bridge:  It was a pedestrian suspension bridge that was inaugurated in 1879. The bridge was made during the reign of Sir Waghji Ravaji, the Thakur Sahib of Morbi. Sir Waghji is credited with planning and building the entire city of Morbi.

Morbi: Morbi in Gujrat is famous for its ceramic industry. The district is dotted by several hundred ceramic-producing factories, mainly medium and small-scale units. Around 70 per cent of India’s ceramics are produced in Morbi.
Machchhu river: Machchhu is a small river that rises in the Madla Hills and flows 130 km into the Rann of Kutch.
 
Insta facts:
World’s longest suspension bridge: Akashi Kaikyo Bridge (Japan)  – 1,991m
 
Insta link:
Indian Bridge Management System
Mains Ques:
Q. Discuss the recent measures initiated in disaster management by the Government of India departing from the earlier reactive approach. (CSE 2020)
Syllabus: Science & Technology
 
Source: Down to Earth
Direction: In this article, it is important to know about the capacity potential and challenges to generating wind energy in India.
Context: Globally, India has the fourth-highest installed capacity to generate wind energy. However, the potential is higher and can be accelerated with changes to the bidding system and policies.
 
Key facts:
  
What is Wind Energy?

 
India’s Potential for wind energy:
According to estimates by the National Institute of Wind Energy (NIWE) and the World Bank Group- The country has the potential for more than 602 GW of onshore wind energy at 120-metre hub height and 100 GW of fixed and floating offshore.
The state of Gujarat has the highest Wind Energy potential, followed by Rajasthan, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh
 
Two types of Wind energy: Onshore wind farms (located on land) and Offshore wind farms ( located in bodies of water)
 
Challenges in meeting targets:
 
What is the feed-in tariff?
 
Steps have been taken to promote the installation of wind capacity in the country:
 
Way forward:
Under the circumstances, major original equipment manufacturers have resorted to exporting turbines and components as the domestic market is going down south.
 
Mains lInk:
Q. What do you understand by ‘curtailment of power’ in the energy sector? How is it affecting the generation of renewable energy in India? (250 words)
Syllabus GS Paper III: Various Security forces and agencies and their mandate.
 
Source : Indian Express
Directions: This Article has been taken from the Indian Express Editorial. Go through it once, you can use it for value addition.
 
Context:  Contrary to popular impression, the appointment of a CDS did not call for the immediate creation of theatre commands.
 
What is CDS?
 
Challenges before India’s newly appointed CDS:
 
What is integrated theatre command?
 
What are joint commands?
 

(Fig: General Bipin Rawat is no more)
 
Why the new CDS must move with caution?
What needs to be done?
 
Do you know?
·         Several major militaries are divided into integrated theatre commands. China’s People’s Liberation Army has five theatre commands: Eastern, Western, Northern, Southern and Central.
o   Its Western Theatre Command is responsible for India.
·         The US Armed Forces have 11 unified commands, of which seven are geographic and four functional commands.
 
Insta Links
Prelims link
Mains Links:
Q. The Chief of Defence Staff (CDS) is responsible not only for the integration of the armed forces but also for solving issues in planning, budgeting and force structuring for a military based on a coherent strategic vision. Analyse.
Q. What are Integrated Theatre Commands? Discuss the prospects and challenges faced in the implementation of integrated theatre commands for India.
 
Source: Indian Express
 Context: SC agrees to hear a PIL challenging the first amendment to the Constitution on the grounds of damaging the basic structure doctrine under changes made to the right to freedom of speech and expression.
 Important provisions of the 1st Amendment of the Indian Constitution

The basic structure doctrine is a legal doctrine that the constitution of a sovereign state has certain characteristics that cannot be erased by its legislature.
The Supreme court of India put forward this doctrine in the Kesavananda Bharati case, 1973; where using its judicial review and powers as an apex court can declare any law that it finds unconstitutional void as well as declare any element as “basic structure”.
 
Source: The Hindu
Context: The Supreme Court will examine a petition that imposes a blanket ban on under trials, persons confined in civil prisons and convicts serving their sentence in jails from casting their votes.
 Key Highlights:
 As per the National Crime Reports Bureau (NCRB) report of 2021, there are over 22% (Convicts), over 77% (Undertrails, UP has maximum) and 0.6% detenues in Indian Prisons.
 
Article 326: It provides that the election to the House of People and Legislative Assembly of States should be conducted on the basis of adult suffrage i.e citizens who are 18 years of age are entitled to vote.
Section 62(5) of the Representation of the People Act, 1951:  It mandates that “no person shall vote at any election if he is confined in a prison, whether under a sentence of imprisonment or transportation or otherwise, or is in the lawful custody of the police”.
 
Source: The Hindu, DTE
Context: The Supreme Court declared that any person conducting the invasive ‘two-finger’ or ‘three-finger’ vaginal test on rape or sexual assault survivors will be found guilty of misconduct.
 Two-finger test: The test is conducted to check whether the victim has had recent sexual intercourse, the victim of rape or sexual assault.
 SC said:
 World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines: A rape test kit, detailing tools are required to collect evidence of the sexual assault.
 Section 53A in the Indian Evidence Act: The evidence of a victim’s character or her previous sexual experience with any person shall not be relevant to the issue of consent or the quality of consent in the prosecution of sexual offences.
 
Source: The Hindu
Context: An internal study commissioned by the Ministry of Rural Development has asked for decentralization of the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGS), allowing more “flexibility” at the ground level.
 
Key Suggestions:
 
Concerns:
 
MGNREGA:
 
Key objectives:
 
Eligibility:
 
Source: The Hindu
Recently, the Madras High Court held that, any amount or donations collected by private educational institutions in exchange for admissions will be termed as ‘capitation fees’ and that collection of capitation fees is illegal and punishable.
 
What is the Capitation fee?
 
Related laws:
The Prohibition of Unfair Practices in Technical Educational Institutions, Medical Institutions and Universities Bill 2010 deals with matters related to Capitation fees.
 
Source: PIB
In a major boost to Atmanirbhar Bharat, the Ministry of Communications granted approval to 42 companies including 28 MSMEs under PLI Scheme for Telecom and Networking Products.
PLI Scheme for Telecom and Networking Products:
The production Linked Incentive (PLI) Scheme for Telecom and Networking Products was launched by DoT in April 2021.
Objective: to boost domestic manufacturing in the telecom and networking products by incentivising incremental investments and turnover with a total outlay of ₹ 12,195 crores.
 
About the PLI scheme:
The scheme aims to make India a global hub for manufacturing telecom equipment.
 
Source: PIB
Context:  Recently Income Tax Department launched the HARIT Aaykar initiative on the occasion of National Unity Day.
Harit (Hariyali Achievement Resolution by Income Tax) Aaykar initiative
What are micro forests?
Do you know?
The Miyawaki method, developed by a Japanese botanist after whom it is named, involves planting saplings in small areas, causing them to “fight” for resources and grow nearly 10 times quicker.
 
Source: PIB
Context:  Warehousing Development and Regulatory Authority (WDRA) has recently organised a seminar on “e-NWR – An Effective Tool for Promoting Pledge Financing”
 
Electronic Negotiable Warehouse Receipt (e-NWR):

 
WDRA
 
Source : DTE 
Context:  Indian Veterinary Research Institute (IVRI) has demanded a ban on using aceclofenac in cattle after a new study showed that the drug metabolises into diclofenac in water buffaloes.
 
Other highlights of the study:
 
What was diclofenac?
 
What does the Vulture action plan 2020-25 says?
Safer alternative for diclofenac and Aceclofenac :- meloxicam and tolfenamic acid.
 
 
Source: DTE
Context:  China launched the final component — the Mengtian module — of its permanent space station on October 31, 2022, from Hainan, the country’s southernmost island province.
  
Mengtian module:
 
Tiangong Space Station
 
Significance of the space station:
 
Others planned space stations:

 
Source: Euronews
 Context:  New research published on Astrobiology found that ancient bacteria called ‘Conan the Bacterium’ (Deinococcus radiodurans)  could survive 280 million years if buried under Mars’ surface – much longer than previously thought.
 
No evidence of surviving life on Mars is known to mankind:

(Image: bacteria-like structures in meteorite fragment ALH84001)
 
Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second-smallest planet in the Solar System. Research in the past ten years has revealed that some four billion years ago, Mars was more similar to our planet with flowing water and a thicker atmosphere. Therefore, various missions to search for possibilities of life on Mars have been sent including:
 
Source: The Print; CSHL
Context:  According to new research 8 per cent of our DNA consists of remnants of ancient viruses.
Human Endogenous Retroviruses (HERVs):

Figure: Mechanism of HERVs
 
Source: DTE
Context:  On 31st October World cities day was observed.
 World cities day:
 
UN – Habitat
 
Do you Know
 
 
Source: TOI
Context: Centre has approved setting up Terai Elephant Reserve (TER) at Dudhwa-Pilibhit in Uttar Pradesh.
About the reserve:

Elephant reserves are created under Project Elephant, a centrally sponsored scheme launched in 1992. Tamil Nadu and Assam have the highest number of elephant reserves with five each.
Other recently created elephant reserves in news:
Asiatic Elephant (IUCN: Endangered) is recognized as a National Heritage Animal and has been given the highest degree of protection under Schedule 1 of the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972 and Appendix I of CITES. India has the largest population of Asian elephants with 30,000 wild and 3,600 captive ones.
 

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