The first hut with bamboos & leaves can be taken as the first civil engineering construction carried out to satisfy the needs of the shelter. Before that, caves were his early abode. India still has many old cave temples with halls & rooms having beautiful carvings. Egyptians constructed huge pyramids. The Greeks developed a style of proportions of building elements; these proportions are known as the orders of Architecture. Romans developed arches for vaults and domes. They used pozzolona, sand, mortar, plaster & concrete. During the Gothic period of architecture (1100-1500 A.D.) churches with pointed arches & the ribs supporting masonry vaults were constructed. The arches ribs were supported by stone pillars, strengthened by buttresses. These structures led to the idea of framed structures.
The period from 1750 A.D. onwards is known as the period of Modern Architecture. Functional structural components such as columns, beams, chajjas, canopies, RCC slabs become popular due to speed in construction. The main considerations in the architectural design of the building for all purposes are as follows:
- Climate & its effect,
- People & their requirements,
- Materials for construction & method of construction, and
- Regulations & Bye-laws of sanctioning authority.
Classification of Building
- Group A: Residential Buildings
- Group B: Educational Buildings
- Group C: Institutional Buildings
- Group D: Assembly Buildings
- Group E: Business Buildings
- Group F: Mercantile Buildings
- Group G: Industrial Buildings
- Group H: Storage Buildings
- Group I: Hazardous Buildings
1. Group A: Residential Buildings
(i) A1: Lodging or Rooming Houses
(ii) A2: One or Two family private Dwellings
(iii) A3: Dormitories
(iv) A4: Apartment Houses (Flats)
(v) A5: Hotels
2. Group B: Educational Buildings
3. Group C: Institutional Buildings
(i) C1: Hospitals & Sanitaria
(ii) C2: Custodial Institutions
(iii) C3: Penal Institutions
4. Group D: Assembly Buildings
5. Group E: Business Buildings
6. Group F: Mercantile Buildings
7. Group G: Industrial Buildings
8. Group H: Storage Buildings
9. Group I: Hazardous Buildings
Components of a Building
- Substructure or Foundation
A Building has the following components:
- Masonry units: walls & columns
- Floor structures
- Roof structures
- Doors, windows & other openings
- Vertical transportation structures like stairs, lifts, ramps etc.
- Building finishes:
- Varnishing& polishing
- White washing
- Colour washing or colouring
I hope this article will help you. You may also want to see my other post from my blog. If I have missed anything here, please let me know about that in the comment below this post.
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